Solution


Approach 1: Backtracking

Backtracking is an algorithm for finding all solutions by exploring all potential candidates. If the solution candidate turns to be not a solution (or at least not the last one), backtracking algorithm discards it by making some changes on the previous step, i.e. backtracks and then try again.

Here is a backtrack function backtrack(combination, next_digits) which takes as arguments an ongoing letter combination and the next digits to check.

  • If there is no more digits to check that means that the current combination is done.
  • If there are still digits to check :
    • Iterate over the letters mapping the next available digit.
      • Append the current letter to the current combination combination = combination + letter.
      • Proceed to check next digits : backtrack(combination + letter, next_digits[1:]).

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Complexity Analysis

  • Time complexity : where N is the number of digits in the input that maps to 3 letters (e.g. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) and M is the number of digits in the input that maps to 4 letters (e.g. 7, 9), and N+M is the total number digits in the input.

  • Space complexity : since one has to keep solutions.

Analysis written by @liaison and @andvary