Solution


Approach: Using OUTER JOIN and temporary tables [Accepted]

Intuition

Solve this issue by two steps. The first one is to get the cumulative sum of an employee's salary over a period of 3 months, and then exclude the most recent month from the result.

Algorithm

If you feel hard to work out how to get the cumulative sum of an employee's salary over a period of 3 months, think about 2 months as a start. By joining this Employee table with itself, you can get salary information for one more month.

SELECT *
FROM
    Employee E1
        LEFT JOIN
    Employee E2 ON (E2.id = E1.id
        AND E2.month = E1.month - 1)
ORDER BY E1.id ASC , E1. month DESC
Id Month Salary Id Month Salary
1 4 60 1 3 40
1 3 40 1 2 30
1 2 30 1 1 20
1 1 20
2 2 30 2 1 20
2 1 20
3 4 70 3 3 60
3 3 60 3 2 40
3 2 40
>Note:
> - The blank value in the output is actually NULL in the database.
> - The first three columns are from E1, and the rest ones are from E2.

Then we can add the salary to get the cumulative sum for 2 months.

SELECT
    E1.id,
    E1.month,
    (IFNULL(E1.salary, 0) + IFNULL(E2.salary, 0)) AS Salary
FROM
    Employee E1
        LEFT JOIN
    Employee E2 ON (E2.id = E1.id
        AND E2.month = E1.month - 1)
ORDER BY E1.id ASC , E1.month DESC
| id | month | Salary |
|----|-------|--------|
| 1  | 4     | 100    |
| 1  | 3     | 70     |
| 1  | 2     | 50     |
| 1  | 1     | 20     |
| 2  | 2     | 50     |
| 2  | 1     | 20     |
| 3  | 4     | 130    |
| 3  | 3     | 100    |
| 3  | 2     | 40     |

Similarly, you can join this table one more time to get the cumulative sum for 3 months.

SELECT
    E1.id,
    E1.month,
    (IFNULL(E1.salary, 0) + IFNULL(E2.salary, 0) + IFNULL(E3.salary, 0)) AS Salary
FROM
    Employee E1
        LEFT JOIN
    Employee E2 ON (E2.id = E1.id
        AND E2.month = E1.month - 1)
        LEFT JOIN
    Employee E3 ON (E3.id = E1.id
        AND E3.month = E1.month - 2)
ORDER BY E1.id ASC , E1.month DESC
;
| id | month | Salary |
|----|-------|--------|
| 1  | 4     | 130    |
| 1  | 3     | 90     |
| 1  | 2     | 50     |
| 1  | 1     | 20     |
| 2  | 2     | 50     |
| 2  | 1     | 20     |
| 3  | 4     | 170    |
| 3  | 3     | 100    |
| 3  | 2     | 40     |

In addition, we have to exclude the most recent month as required. If we have a temp table including every id and most recent month like below, then we can easily opt out these months by join it with the above table.

| id | month |
|----|-------|
| 1  | 4     |
| 2  | 2     |
| 3  | 4     |

Here is the code to generate this table.

SELECT
    id, MAX(month) AS month
FROM
    Employee
GROUP BY id
HAVING COUNT(*) > 1
;

At last, we can join them together and get the desired cumulative sum of an employee's salary over a period of 3 months excluding the most recent one.

MySQL

SELECT
    E1.id,
    E1.month,
    (IFNULL(E1.salary, 0) + IFNULL(E2.salary, 0) + IFNULL(E3.salary, 0)) AS Salary
FROM
    (SELECT
        id, MAX(month) AS month
    FROM
        Employee
    GROUP BY id
    HAVING COUNT(*) > 1) AS maxmonth
        LEFT JOIN
    Employee E1 ON (maxmonth.id = E1.id
        AND maxmonth.month > E1.month)
        LEFT JOIN
    Employee E2 ON (E2.id = E1.id
        AND E2.month = E1.month - 1)
        LEFT JOIN
    Employee E3 ON (E3.id = E1.id
        AND E3.month = E1.month - 2)
ORDER BY id ASC , month DESC
;
id month Salary
1 3 90
1 2 50
1 1 20
2 1 20
3 3 100
3 2 40

Note: Thank @xiaxin for providing this elegant solution.